✪✪✪ Mixing Sugar And Sulfuric Acid Creates A Chemical Reaction

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Mixing Sugar And Sulfuric Acid Creates A Chemical Reaction

Increase digested sludge Mixing Sugar And Sulfuric Acid Creates A Chemical Reaction rates. There must be at least two men on top of a digester for every Mixing Sugar And Sulfuric Acid Creates A Chemical Reaction inside the tank to Mixing Sugar And Sulfuric Acid Creates A Chemical Reaction move the worker in case of emergency. This Centogram balance has a higher degree of accuracy since the Mixing Sugar And Sulfuric Acid Creates A Chemical Reaction are marked in 0. Never Mixing Sugar And Sulfuric Acid Creates A Chemical Reaction a hot object; hot objects may mar the Jane Doe Strengths And Weaknesses. Record the temperature of the water NOTE: The amount of alkalinity already in the digester in this case would be swot analysis british airways excess and is considered a cushion.

Sugar and Sulfuric Acid Dehydration Reaction Experiment (Chemistry)

Low methyl ester pectin can react with calcium ions to form gel, even under relative high pH environment. Therefore, when dissolving the pectin into water, it is essential to avoid the gelling condition; similar to other hydrocolloids, the dissolution usually needs high shearing mixing [ 8 ]. Pectic polysaccharides from American ginseng. Adpated from Guo, et al. Adopted from Cui et al. As one typical positively charged polysaccharide Figure 4 , chitosan is derived from the deacetylation of chitin. The positively charged groups come from protonation of its free amino groups, which is the key to its water solubility. Chitosan is insoluble in neutral and basic environments due to the lacking of a positive charge.

However, in acidic environments, protonation of the amino groups increases the degree of water solubility. Following this property, chitosan has been widely used for drug delivery, e. Structural feature of chitosan. The linear polysaccharides with highly regular conformation that can form crystalline or partial crystalline structures are mostly insoluble in water, while branching structure could increase the solubility for two reasons: 1 the branching structure could weaken the intramolecular interaction due to the steric effects, which prevent the intermolecular association, and 2 the highly branched structure could also decrease the excluded volume when compared to polysaccharides with same molecular weight, which potentially increases the critical concentration and therefore improves the water solubility.

However, it can be modified by decreasing the Mw and introducing either charged sodium carboxymethyl cellulose CMC or branching groups methyl cellulose MC , hydroxylpropyl cellulose HPC , hydroxylpropyl methyl cellulose HPMC to increase the solubility Figure 5. Schematic chart for cellulose derivatives. Starch contains both amylose and amylopectin.

Amylopectin exhibits better solubility than amylose due to the highly branched structure, although the latter has relative low molecular weight amylose, 10 5 ; amylopectin, 10 7 —10 9. According to the structure and solubility difference, amylose and amylopectin can be separated from each other in starch granules according to the following procedure: firstly, starch granules are completely dispersed in hot water or aqueous dimethyl sulfoxide; amylose then can be precipitated by the addition of butanol as a crystalline complex due to the linear structure after cooling. Afterward, amylopectin can be recovered from the supernatant by lyophilization [ 13 ]. Guar gum and locust bean gum both belong to the galactomannan family Figure 6 , while the degree of branching for guar gum galactose to mannose is higher than locust bean gum galactose to mannose about , which could easily prevent strong cohesion of the main backbones of different neighboring molecules, so that no extensive crystalline regions of guar gum can be formed, while locust bean gum is easy to form gel due to the naked region of the molecules, which favors the formation of junction zone [ 14 ].

Schematic chart for galactomannan structure. Xylans of all higher plants possess 1—4 linked D-xyl P residues as the backbone, substituted by various degrees with sugar units including arabinose, xylose, and glucuronic acid 4-O-methyl. However, with the increase of degree of substitution such as arabinose arabinoxylan as shown in Figure 7 , its solubility dramatically increased [ 15 ]. Schematic chart of arabinoxylan. A: T-Ara P. Gum arabic has a highly branched structure Figure 8.

Gum arabic has been commercially used as emulsifiers due to the covalent bond with protein, in which protein functioned as hydrophobic group attached to the oil droplet and keeps the whole emulsion system stable. According to methylation analysis [ 16 ], the most branched sugar residues in gum ghatti were 3,4,6-Gal p The good solubility of gum ghatti could also be attributed to the 1—6 linked glycosidic bonds, which will be discussed in the later session. Proposed structure of gum arabic Acacia senegal , adopted from Nie et al. Proposed structure of gum ghatti, adopted from Kang et al.

Similar to branching effects, the presence of some hydrophobic groups, e. O -acetyl substituents are present on many cell wall polymers including various hemicelluloses Figure 10 , the pectic polysaccharides and the polyphenol lignin, which have been previously summarized [ 19 ]. O -acetylation of cell wall polysaccharides. A Generic representation of O -acetyl group as found at different -OH positions in many cell wall polysaccharides.

Note the structural similarity between O -acetyl- and methyl ester groups that decorate carboxylic acid residues in polygalacturonic acid. B Occurrence of O -acetyl groups in cell wall matrix polysaccharides. Adopted from Pawar et al. It has been reported that the totally acetylated xylan DA 2. Similar conclusion has also been drawn from acetylated glucomannan. One example is polysaccharides from Dendrobium officinale traditional Chinese herbs , which belong to glucomannan family but highly acetylated, as shown in Figure This polysaccharide is readily dissolved in water. The solubility, however, is significantly decreased if the acetyl group was either removed through alkaline treatment or increased through acetylation reaction.

It has also been reported that the immunomodulating effect of this polysaccharide was also affected by the acetyl group [ 21 ]. Proposed structure of polysaccharides from Dendrobium officinale. Adopted from Xing et al. The conformation can be simply regarded as the way that polymer chains align themselves in solution to adopt an orientation with lower energies.

Two general types of conformation for polysaccharides can be simply divided—ordered conformation and disordered conformation—which is decided by the regularity of the molecular structure. In aqueous solution, most of non-starch polysaccharides with heterogeneous structure demonstrated disordered conformation, including random coil, rigid, and spherical conformation. High-performance size exclusion chromatography HPSEC could be used to study the conformational properties of polysaccharides in aqueous solution. The double logarithmic plot of the molecular weight vs. To determine the density of water. Obtain a solid block from the instructor.

Record the code number. Using your metric ruler, determine the dimensions of the block length, width, height and record the values to the nearest 0. Calculate the volume of the block 2. Repeat the measurements for a second trial. Using a single pan, triple beam balance Centogram or a top loading balance if available , determine the mass of the block 3. Record the mass to the nearest 0. Calculate the density of the block 4. Density of an Irregular-Shaped Object 1. Obtain a sample of unknown metal from your instructor. Obtain a mass of the sample of approximately 5 g. Be sure to record the exact quantity to the nearest 0. Fill a mL graduated cylinder approximately halfway with water. Record the exact volume to the nearest 0. Place the metal sample into the graduated cylinder.

If the pieces of metal are too large for the opening of the mL graduated cylinder, use a larger graduated cylinder. Be sure all of the metal is below the water line. Read the new level of the water in the graduated cylinder to the nearest 0. Assuming that the metal does not dissolve or react with the water, the difference between the two levels represents the volume of the metal sample 8 Fig. Figure 3. Carefully recover the metal sample and dry it with a paper towel. Repeat the experiment. Calculate the density of the metal sample from your data 9.

Determine the identity of your metal sample by comparing its density to the densities listed in Table 3. Table 3. Recover your metal sample and return it as directed by your instructor. Use of the Spectroline Pipet Filler 1. The end should insert easily and not be forced. Place the tip of the pipet into the liquid to be pipetted. Make sure that the tip is below the surface of the liquid at all times. Release the valve; the liquid should remain in the pipet. Withdraw the pipet from the liquid. Draw the tip of the pipet lightly along the wall of the beaker to remove excess water. Carefully draw the tip of the pipet lightly along the wall of the beaker to remove excess water.

Water should remain inside the tip; the pipet is calibrated with this water in the tip. Density of Water 1. Obtain approximately 50 mL of distilled water from your instructor. Record the temperature of the water Take a clean, dry mL beaker; weigh to the nearest 0. With a mL volumetric pipet, transfer Before transfering the distilled water, be sure there are no air bubbles trapped in the volumetric pipet. Immediately weigh the beaker and water and record the weight to the nearest 0. Calculate the weight of the water by subtraction Calculate the density of the water at the temperature recorded Never use your mouth when pipetting.

Repeat step no. Be sure all the glassware used is clean and dry. Calculate the average density Compare your average value at the recorded temperature to the value reported for that temperature in a standard reference. Obtain two small 2-mm plastic chips from your instructor. Place a mL graduated cylinder containing a small magnetic spin-bar on a magnetic stirrer. Add 30 mL of acetone and begin to stir the liquid slowly.

Add the plastic chips to the liquid. Stop the stirring and note that the chips will sink to the bottom. With slow intermittent stirring, add 3—4 mL of water dropwise. Watch the plastic chips as you add the water; see if they rise or stay on the bottom. At this point, the liquid has the same density as that of the plastic chips. Weigh a clean and dry mL beaker to the nearest 0. Record the weight on your Report Sheet Weigh to the nearest 0.

Record it on your Report Sheet Repeat step 5 for a second trial. Calculate the density of the liquid, and hence the density of the plastic chips Determine the average density of the plastic chips. Magnetic spin-bar 2. Magnetic stirrer 3. Solid wood block 6. Aluminum 7. Lead 8. Tin 9. Zinc Polyethylene plastic chips Acetone 32 Experiment 3 Harcourt, Inc. The density of iron is 7. Show your calculations. A miner discovered some yellow nuggets. They weighed g and had a volume of 21 cm3. The density of gold is Show your work to justify your answer. List some characteristic properties of matter that are intensive properties. Hexane has a density of 0.

How many mL are needed to have Explain why this is possible. A student doing a density determination of a liquid used a mL volumetric pipet. When measuring a liquid with the pipet, the student blew out all the liquid, including the small amount from the tip. Could you still use water as a second liquid to bring the chips to the middle of the liquid? A student wished to determine the density of an irregular piece of metal and one obtained the following data: a mass of the metal: Show your calculations for determining the density, and from Table 3. The beverages we drink each morning, the fuel we use in our automobiles, and the ground we walk on are mixtures. Very few materials we encounter are pure.

Any material made up of two or more substances that are not chemically combined is a mixture. The isolation of pure components of a mixture requires the separation of one component from another. Chemists have developed techniques for doing this. These methods take advantage of the differences in physical properties of the components. The techniques to be demonstrated in this laboratory are the following: 1. This involves heating a solid until it passes directly from the solid phase into the gaseous phase.

The reverse process, when the vapor goes back to the solid phase without a liquid state in between, is called condensation or deposition. Some solids which sublime are iodine, caffeine, and paradichlorobenzene mothballs. This uses a solvent to selectively dissolve one component of the solid mixture. With this technique, a soluble solid can be separated from an insoluble solid. This separates a liquid from an insoluble solid sediment by carefully pouring the liquid from the solid without disturbing the solid Fig.

Figure 4. These materials allow the liquid to pass through but not the solid see Fig. This is the process of heating a mixture in order to drive off, in the form of vapor, a volatile liquid, so as to make the remaining component dry. The separation will be done according to the scheme in Fig. To demonstrate the separation of a mixture. To examine some techniques for separation using physical methods. Procedure 1. Obtain a clean, dry mL beaker and carefully weigh it to the nearest 0. Record this weight for beaker 1 on the Report Sheet 1. With the beaker still on the balance, carefully transfer 40 Experiment 4 Harcourt, Inc.

Record the weight of the beaker with the contents to the nearest 0. Calculate the exact sample weight by subtraction 3. Place an evaporating dish on top of the beaker containing the mixture. Place the beaker and evaporating dish on a wire gauze with an iron ring and ring stand assembly as shown in Fig. Place ice in the evaporating dish, being careful not to get any water on the underside of the evaporating dish or inside the beaker. A solid should collect on the underside of the evaporating dish.

After 10 min. Carefully remove the evaporating dish from the beaker and collect the solid by scraping it off the dish with a spatula. Drain away any water from the evaporating dish and add ice to it, if necessary. Stir the contents of the beaker with a glass rod. Return the evaporating dish to the beaker and apply the heat again. Continue heating and scraping off solid until no more solid collects. Discard the naphthalene into a special container provided by your instructor.

Allow the beaker to cool until it reaches room temperature. Weigh the beaker with the contained solid 4. Calculate the weight of the naphthalene that sublimed 5. Add 25 mL of distilled water to the solid in the beaker. Heat and stir for 5 min. Weigh a second clean, dry mL beaker with 2 or 3 boiling chips, to the nearest 0. Residue Funnel tip should touch the beaker in such a way that filtrate will run down the wall of the beaker Filtrate 8. Position the second beaker under the funnel. Place beaker 2 and its contents on a wire gauze with an iron ring and ring stand assembly as shown in Fig.

Begin to heat gently with a Bunsen burner. As the volume of liquid is reduced, solid sodium chloride will appear. When all of the liquid is gone, cool the beaker to room temperature. Weigh the beaker, chips, and the solid residue to the nearest 0. Calculate the weight of the recovered NaCl by subtraction 8. Evaporation of a volatile b. Heating a solid liquid from a solution. Carefully weigh a third clean, dry mL beaker to the nearest 0. Heat the sand to dryness in the beaker with a burner, using the ring stand and assembly shown in Fig. Allow the sand to cool to room temperature. Weigh the beaker and the sand to the nearest 0. Calculate the weight of the recovered sand by subtraction Calculate a.

Unknown mixture 2. Balances 3. Boiling chips 4. Evaporating dish, 6 cm 5. Filter paper, 15 cm 6. Mortar and pestle 7. Oven if available 8. Ring stands 3 9. Rubber policeman 44 Experiment 4 Harcourt, Inc. Of the 5 methods listed for the separation of the components found in a mixture, which one would you use to remove mud from water? Can any of the methods listed in the Background section be used to separate the elements found in a compound? What separation technique s is are used when making a cup of tea by soaking a tea bag in hot water? What property of this compound allows it to be used in mothballs for clothes protection?

A student started this experiment with a mixture weighing 2. After separating the components, a total of 2. Assume that all the weighings and calculations were done correctly. How do you account for the apparent increase in weight of the recovered material? Ice cubes stored in the freezer compartment of a refrigerator for a long period of time lose their shape and shrink in size. Account for this observation. The weight of naphthalene in your sample could be determined either by difference as in this experiment or by directly weighing the amount of solid collected on the evaporating dish. Which method is a more accurate method? A sample of french fried potatoes weighing After separation and evaporation of the hexane, 6.

What was the percent oil in the potatoes? Dry cleaners remove oil and grease spots from clothing by using an organic solvent called perchloroethylene. What separation technique do the cleaners use? From an Calculate the percentage of each substance in the sample and the total percentage of sample recovered. Show all your work. Experiment 5 Resolution of a mixture by distillation Background Distillation is one of the most common methods of purifying a liquid. It is a very simple method: a liquid is brought to a boil, the liquid becomes a gas, the gas condenses and returns to the liquid state, and the liquid is collected.

Everyone has had an opportunity to heat water to a boil. As heat is applied, water molecules increase their kinetic energy. The vapor above the liquid exerts a pressure, called the vapor pressure. As more and more molecules obtain enough energy to escape into the vapor phase, the vapor pressure of these molecules increases. Eventually the vapor pressure equals the pressure exerted externally on the liquid this external pressure usually is caused by the atmosphere. Boiling occurs when this condition is met, and the temperature where this occurs is called the boiling point. In distillation, the process described is carried out in an enclosed system, such as is illustrated in Fig 5.

The vapor then travels into a tube cooled by water, which serves as a condenser, where the vapor returns to the liquid state. Only by applying more heat will the higher-boiling component be distilled. Nonvolatile substances will not distill. However, when boiling takes place in a closed system, it is possible to change the boiling point of the liquid by changing the pressure in the closed system.

If the external pressure is reduced, usually by using a vacuum pump or a water aspirator, the boiling point of the liquid is reduced. Thus, heat-sensitive liquids, some of which decompose when boiled at atmospheric pressure, distill with minimum decomposition at reduced pressure and temperature. The relation of temperature to vapor pressure for the organic compound aniline can be shown by the curve in Fig 5. To use distillation to separate a mixture. To show that distillation can purify a liquid. In this experiment a salt—water mixture will be separated by distillation. The volatile water will be separated from the nonvolatile salt sodium chloride, NaCl.

Assemble an apparatus as illustrated in Fig 5. A kit containing the necessary glassware can be obtained from your instructor. The glassware contains standard taper joints, which allow for quick assembly and disassembly. Be sure that the rubber tubing to the condenser enters the lower opening and empties out of the upper opening. Adjust the bulb of the thermometer to below the junction of the condenser and the distillation column. Be sure that the opening of the vacuum adapter is open to the atmosphere. Figure 5. Record the temperature of the vapors as soon as the 1 mL of water has been collected.

Continue collection of the distilled water until approximately one-half of the mixture has distilled. Record the temperature of the vapors at this point. Turn off the Bunsen burner and allow the system to return to room temperature. Add to each sample 5 drops of silver nitrate solution. Look for the appearance of a white precipitate. Record your observations. Silver ions combine with chloride ions to form a white precipitate of silver chloride. Concentrated nitric acid causes severe burns to the skin.

Handle this acid carefully. Flush with water if any spills on you. Wear gloves when working with this acid. Obtain a clean nickel wire from your instructor. Dip the wire into the distilled water sample. Make sure you wipe the grease from the joints before washing the glassware used in the distillation. Boiling chips 2. Bunsen burner 3. Clamps 4. Distillation kit 5. Silicone grease 6. Thermometer 7. Nickel wire 8. Concentrated nitric acid, HNO3 9. Salt—water mixture What will happen to the boiling point of water if the pressure is reduced above the surface of a sample? A student has a mixture of two liquids. How could you distill an organic compound that decomposed when boiled at room temperature? In addition, it does not matter where the compound is found.

We also know that the compound water is composed of 2 atoms of hydrogen and 1 atom of oxygen and has the formula H2O. The empirical formula the simplest whole number ratio of atoms in a compound is experimentally the simplest formula of a compound that can be found. For water, the formula, H2O, is both the empirical and the molecular formula. However, for the compound benzene, while the molecular formula is C6H6, the empirical formula is CH. Another example is the sugar found in honey, fructose: the molecular formula is C6H12O6 and the empirical formula is CH2O.

The number of moles of each element can be calculated from the experimental values of the weights in which the elements combine by dividing by their corresponding atomic weights. If the molecular weight and the empirical formula of the compound are known, then the molecular formula of the compound can be determined. We will do this by reducing a known weight of copper II chloride with aluminum to elemental copper.

From these weights, the mole ratio of copper to chlorine, the empirical formula, and the percent composition of CuCl2 can then be calculated. Using this data, the following calculations can be made: 1. Weight of chlorine in CuCl2: 5. Moles of Cu: 2. Moles of Cl: 2. Mole ratio of Cu to Cl: 0. Simplest whole number ratio of Cu to Cl: 0. The empirical formula for copper II chloride is CuCl2. To calculate the percent composition of an element in a compound. To verify the empirical formula of copper II chloride. To illustrate the Law of Constant Composition. Weigh out between 5 and 6 g of CuCl2; record the weight to the nearest 0.

Do not weigh directly on the balance pan, but be sure to use a container or weighing paper. Transfer the CuCl2 to a mL beaker. Add 60 mL of distilled water and stir the contents with a glass stirring rod until the solid is completely dissolved. Obtain a cm length of aluminum wire approx. Make the handle long enough so that the wire can be hung over the side of the beaker. The coil must be covered by the solution and should reach the bottom of the beaker Fig. Figure 6. Occasionally shake the wire to loosen the copper.

The disappearance of the initial blue color of the copper II ions indicates that the reaction is complete. Test for the completion of the reaction. Add 3 drops of 6 M aqueous ammonia to the test tube. Use a hot plate. Shake the aluminum wire so that all the copper clinging to it will fall into the solution. Remove the unreacted aluminum wire from the solution and discard into a solid waste container provided by your instructor. Finally, wash the copper in the funnel with 30 mL of acetone to speed up the drying process. By subtraction obtain the weight of copper 4. From the weight of copper II chloride 1 and the weight of copper 4 , the weight of chlorine can be calculated in the sample by subtraction 5. From the experimental data, determine the empirical formula of copper II chloride, and the error in determining the percent of copper.

Aluminum wire no. Acetone 3. Copper II chloride 5. Filter paper Whatman no. Hot plate 7. Rubber policeman 8. Pasteur pipets Wash bottle 60 Experiment 6 Harcourt, Inc. Given the following molecular formulas, write the empirical formulas. Calculate the percentage by weight of Al in AlCl3. How would the following affect the accuracy of your determination of the percentage composition of copper? The Cu metal was not completely dry before weighing. Explain why you can determine the weight of chlorine by difference [see 5 in Report Sheet]. The organic compound, cyclohexane, has an empirical formula of CH2 and a molecular weight of What is the molecular formula?

Write the balanced equation for the reaction of copper I chloride, CuCl, with aluminum, Al. When 6. Calculate the weight of chlorine in the sample of CuCl2. Calculate the percentage composition of Cu and Cl in the sample. Experiment 7 Determination of the formula of a metal oxide Background Through the use of chemical symbols and numerical subscripts, the formula of a compound can be written.

The simplest formula that may be written is the empirical formula. In this formula, the subscripts are in the form of the simplest whole number ratio of the atoms in a molecule or of the ions in a formula unit. The molecular formula, however, represents the actual number of atoms in a molecule. For example, although CH2O represents the empirical formula of the sugar, glucose, C6H12O6 , represents the molecular formula.

For water, H2O, and carbon dioxide, CO2, the empirical and the molecular formulas are the same. Ionic compounds are generally written as empirical formulas only; for example, common table salt is NaCl. The formation of a compound from pure components is independent of the source of the material or of the method of preparation. This concept is known as the Law of Constant Composition. If the weight of each element that combines in an experiment is known, then the number of moles of each element can be determined. The empirical formula of the compound formed is the ratio between the number of moles of elements in the compound. This can be illustrated by the following example. If Thus The empirical formula of sulfur dioxide is SO2.

This also is the molecular formula. In this experiment, the moderately reactive metal, magnesium, is combined with oxygen. The oxide, magnesium oxide, is formed. The moles can then be expressed in a simple whole number ratio and an empirical formula written. To prepare a metal oxide. To verify the empirical formula of a metal oxide. To demonstrate the Law of Constant Composition. A hot crucible can cause severe burns if handled improperly.

Always handle a hot crucible with crucible tongs. Cleaning the Crucible 1. Obtain a porcelain crucible and cover. Carefully clean the crucible in the hood by adding 10 mL of 6 M HCl to the crucible; allow the crucible to stand for 5 min. With crucible tongs, pick up the crucible, discard the HCl, and rinse the crucible with distilled water from a plastic squeeze bottle. Place the crucible in a clay triangle, which is mounted on an iron ring and attached to a ring stand. Place the crucible cover on the crucible slightly ajar Fig.

Figure 7. Begin to heat the crucible with the aid of a Bunsen burner in order to evaporate water. With tongs, remove the crucible to a heat-resistant surface and allow the crucible and cover to reach room temperature. When cool, weigh the crucible and cover to 0. Place the crucible and cover in the clay triangle again. Reheat the crucible to the cherry red color for 5 min. Allow the crucible and cover to cool to room temperature. Reweigh when cool 2. Compare weight 1 and weight 2. If the weight differs by more than 0. Continue heating, cooling, and weighing until the weight of the crucible and cover are constant to within 0. Forming the Oxide 1.

Using forceps to handle the magnesium ribbon, cut a piece approximately 12 cm in length and fold the metal into a ball; transfer to the crucible. Weigh the crucible, cover, and magnesium to 0. Determine the weight of magnesium metal 4 by subtraction. However the subject will suffer severe brain damage, constant hallucinations and will lose some motor control. If addicted the subject will suffer very severe Brain damage, severe hallucinations, complete loss of motor control and eventually fatal amounts of Toxin damage. The subject will think they are "amped" and regenerate stamina at an incredible rate.

However the drug randomly causes the subject to suffocate about half the time, while also dealing 0. Suppresses phobias and fills you with ecstasic emotional numbness. Removes jitteriness, confusion and disgust. Causes 0. Highly addictive. If addicted it will slowly drive your mood to "insane". Slowly-metabolizing compound. Heals dizziness, drowsiness, sleep and heats you up if frozen, similarly to Cafe Latte. Reduces stun times slightly. No chance for addiction but very finicky OD.

Overdose-Effect: If overdosed causes jitteriness, stuttering, rapid oxygen damage and eventually puts you to a lethal sleep. An illegal compound which induces a number of effects such as loss of balance and visual artefacts. Overdose-Effect: Causes hallucinations. Will allow you to run at full speed, even when hurt or in a hardsuit, but you'll fall asleep if it's in your system for 24 ticks. Results in 3 units instead of 6. A strong hallucinogenic drug derived from certain species of mushroom.

Causes jittering, dizziness, drugginess, twitching and giggling. When mixed with certain pyrotechnics, it stabilizes the reaction and prevents the reaction for usage later. The stabilizing agent is not consumed when stabilizing explosives, and one unit is enough to stabilize any amount of explosives. This does not work on everything, so be warned! Creates a large amount of foam when mixed with an equal amount of water. This foam carries any reagents along with it in the container, allowing you to apply reagents to large areas at a time. The foam will apply any carried reagents to any walls, floors, objects, or people and animals in the area of the foam.

The less foam used, the more reagent will be delivered into a person's bloodstream. Foam is slippery! Can not react in a body. This creates a large cloud of smoke that will take on the properties of everything if anything in the container of the reaction. The chemicals in the smoke will touch and react with everything that the smoke touches. Mobs caught within the smoke cloud without wearing a gas mask or breathing through a gas tank will ingest the smoke chemicals. Great for distributing toxins in a crowded area. Can be stabilized into Smoke Powder with stabilizing agent 1 part Iron 1 part Oxygen 1 part Hydrogen.

The stabilized version of smoke 1 part Phosphorous 1 part Potassium 1 part Sugar - only one third as effective as the unstabilized chemical reaction. Heat to K to activate. Flashes in a radius that scales up with the amount detonated. If stabilized, heat to K to activate. Turns into a spreading plasma fire if not stabilized during mixing. Makes you burn longer, and ignites you. Deals increasing fire damage based on how much you're burning up to 4 fire damage every 3 seconds. Does not react immediately. A substance that burns for much longer than other fuels. Inject it into someone and then apply heat for a warm toasty fireball human. Deafens in a radius that scales up with the amount detonated. When first mixed it becomes 20 Kelvin cold.

Instantly consumes all liquid Oxygen to heat its container for each unit of Oxygen consumed. This does not expend the Pyrosium, so 1u will have the same effect as 50u. Does nothing whatsoever without being mixed with liquid Oxygen. Does not react with the oxygen in air. Instantly consumes all liquid Oxygen to cool its container for each unit of Oxygen consumed. This does not expend the Cryostylane, so 1u will have the same effect as 50u, unless you want to prevent it from metabolising out of a body too fast. Does nothing without being mixed with liquid Oxygen. Deals toxin damage to slimes. When created it will create a temporary 3x3 fireball. Comes into existence at K.

A flammable substance so dangerous it can burn through the hull of the station. It lights you on fire when it comes into contact with you, and if it gets inside of you will burn you from the inside out. It metabolizes out of your body extremely fast, however. Luckily it can't melt reinforced walls. When detonated it will send any movable object or person flying away from the detonation point.

When detonated it will suck in any movable object or person. Reagents are K room temperature by default, so if you are making methamphetamine 1 part Ephedrine 1 part Diethylamine 1 part Ammonia 3 parts Hydrogen 1 part Nitrogen 1 part Ethanol 1 part Sugar 1 part Oil 1 part Welding Fuel 1 part Carbon 1 part Hydrogen 1 part Hydrogen 1 part Iodine 1 part Phosphorus 1 part Hydrogen temperature k and mixing the ephedrine 1 part Diethylamine 1 part Ammonia 3 parts Hydrogen 1 part Nitrogen 1 part Ethanol 1 part Sugar 1 part Oil 1 part Welding Fuel 1 part Carbon 1 part Hydrogen 1 part Hydrogen last, make sure you're using a chilled container, or it'll blow up just as if it was overheated, additionaly creating K.

Definitely safer to just make the ephedrine separately. When heated to K it sparks, and then creates a violent explosion seconds later approximately Causes hallucinations in plasmamen. A heavy, colourless, oily, explosive liquid obtained by nitrating glycerol. Explodes immediately on mixing. Results in 2 units instead of 3. This explodes immediately on mixing, which may knock you over or even kill you. Only useful in grenade production. This explodes immediately on mixing. If it combined at least u of total reagents, it results in a more powerful explosion, which also paralyzes and reveals revenants and sets nearby cultists on fire.

Otherwise it behaves like a normal Water-Potassium explosion. This reacts immediately on mixing, creating an electromagnetic pulse which affects electronics nearby; very useful for causing chaos. The range depends on the amount. Creates bees. If mixed in a beaker or grenade containing other reagents, then every bee will contain one of those reagents. The bees from this reaction have a limited lifespan, and will die after 50 seconds. A mixture that can burn straight through walls or floors when splashed and ignited. Needed amount depends on target structure. Does not work on doors or windows.

Causes minor burn damage to humans when ingested. Grind a bluespace crystal Grind certain plants Slimes. Creates CO2 in liquid form. Spilling this will release gas form CO2 into the atmosphere. Has no other effects. Creates a carpet on the floor. Keep away from the clown and assistants! Add this to your smoke 1 part Phosphorous 1 part Potassium 1 part Sugar grenades. A chemical agent used for self-defense and in police work. Stuns when sprayed into unprotected eyes. Protecting your mouth helps a bit. Results in 5 units instead of 6. Causes confusion and dizziness. Creates a solution that when applied to galoshes, causes them to be extra absorbent and dry any wet tiling they step on.

Makes sprayed tiles dry 5 seconds faster. Creates 1 unit instead of 2. When used in a spray or with smoke 1 part Phosphorous 1 part Potassium 1 part Sugar it creates a non-slippery foam 2 parts Carbon 2 parts Fluorine 1 part Sulphuric Acid which extinguishes fires and burning creatures, and removes plasma from the air, dumping it on the floor upon dissipation. A highly caustic and dangerous substance.

Slowly melts equipment and clothes it touches. Instantly deals about 0. Deals toxin and constantly increasing burn damage if ingested. Requires blended corn, so thus help from the botanist. Slippery like water. Results in 1 unit instead of 4. Creates lightweight metal foam walls. These can be easily torn through, but are useful for plugging hull breaches or blocking off AI turrets. Can be made with either iron or aluminium. Used in Peptide Conversion to produce Peptides. Metabolizes very slowly at. Usually doesn't encase people or block hallways. Creates N2O in liquid form. Explodes when heated to K. Will cause drowsiness on touch.

When consumed or injected it also causes anemia, confusion and loss of breath. Spilling this will release gas form N2O into the atmosphere. Solidifies a large amount of liquid Plasma into a bar. Causes a Queen Bee to split in two when injected. Results in 5 units instead of Commonly known as salt, Sodium Chloride is often used to season food. This is able to clean almost all surfaces of almost anything that may dirty them. The janitor is likely to appreciate refills. Causes toxin damage when ingested. Space Lube is a high performance lubricant intended for maintenance of extremely complex mechanical equipment. Results in 4 units instead of 3. Found in Sterilizer sprays.

Useful for surgery in less than ideal conditions. Can work as a substitute to Space Cleaner. Causes mutations when injected into living people or plants. High doses may be lethal, especially in humans. Also useful for Virology. The botanist wants this in liquid form. Used to get a virus symptom of level 1. Depleted virus food. Results in 1 unit instead of 2. Used to get a virus symptom of level 1 or 2. Allows viruses and bacteria to quickly grow. The virologist has a dispenser with this on a wall in the lab. Results in 15 units instead of Used to get a virus symptom of level 3. Used to get a virus symptom of level 4.

Extremely similar to Mutagenic Agar. Used to get a virus symptom of level 5. Weakened variety of virus plasma. Used to get a virus symptom of level 6. Extremely similar to Plasma. Used to get a virus symptom of level 6 or 7. Powerful viral mutagen. Used to get a virus symptom of level 7. Results in 1 unit instead of 6. Used to get a virus symptom of level 8. Results in 1 unit instead of Mutagenic chemical that transforms into a slimeperson. Transforms into a lizardperson. Slowly morphs the victim into a slime. The transformation can be stopped with Frost Oil. A powerful sedative which first dizzies and confuses, and then after 10 ticks puts the victim to sleep. After 51 total ticks, it starts dealing increasing toxin damage starting at 1 and increasing by 1 per tick, until death.

Results in 1 unit instead of 5. A potent hallucinogenic compound that is illegal under space law.

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